TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cooper, G. Burns
intonation in English.
Rhetorical organization of Chichewa discourse.
alternative to Spanish vowel linking.
terrible Saxon dialect": standard language ideology
in post-unification Germany.
DuBois, Sylvie, William Gautreaux, and Tracey VelerLaissez
francais cadjin rouler.
Duke, Michael R
linguistic standardization and social power.
Gaudio, Rudolf P
lesbians and other queer notions in Hausa.
as an explanation for sex-based variation in language.
and "local" metapragmatic knowledge in a Tokyo ccorporate
The use of
prepositions, articles and simplification in contact varieties of German.
Lane, Lisa Ann, Jeannette Denton, and Daniel Susslak
validity and reliability of phonetic transcriptions for sociolinguistics
que me disculpen": ethnic and gender norms in language choice.
Lucia de Gerdes, Marta
poetics of Kuna radio broadcasts.
Mageneau, Keller S. and Gabriella Modan
"farmers" and "ordinary Americans":
A critical discourse analysis of Democratic and Republican speeches
to the American public.
a homeless woman makes a burglary report: Ideologies of public
and private language in sociolinguistics.
& codeswitching among Latina gang girls.
Ogawa, Naoko and Janet S. (Shibamoto) Smith
linguistic gendering of an alternative Japanese lifestyle: speech variation
in the gay communities of urban Japan.
context and reported speech in Sierra Popoluca discourse performance.
in four languages: where formal grammar and speech play/verbal art meet.
Order and the dialectics of sociolinguistic life.
Swartzel Lott, Peggy
work of eyes: patterns of eye gaze in American Sign Language
Taggart Clark, John
Standard and vernacular persuasive discourse
You can say
you to me: German translations of second person pronouns in American
of African-American Language in introductory linguistics texts.
Woodbury, Anthony C
poetics & rhetoric of overlap in a sample of Yup'ik men's house
Zentella, Ana Celia
"Chiquitasication" of U.S. Latinos and their languages
(or: Why we need an anthropolitical linguistics)
"Chiquitasication" of U.S. Latinos and their languages (or:
Why we need an anthropolitical linguistics)
Ana Celia Zentella, C.U.N.Y.-Hunter College
Male lesbians and other queer notions in Hausa
Rudolf P. Gaudio, Stanford University
Hausa gay men's descriptions of their sexual relationships reveal a dialectic
of adherence to and subversion of mainstream cultural norms regarding
gender, age and socioeconomic status. In many gay relationships, feminine-
and masculine-identified partners assume interactional roles with regard
to sex, money and other symbolic forms which are modeled after traditional
heterosexual institutions. But gay men also establish liaisons which disrupt
the expected power arrangements conventionally associated with sex. This
sort of sexual subversion is limited, however, by the fact that the discursive
frames within which Hausa gay men discuss their sexual relationships share
a common patriarchal basis with mainstream Hausa society.
The linguistic gendering of an alternative Japanese
lifestyle: speech variation in the gay communities of urban Japan
Naoko Ogawa and Janet S. (Shibamoto) Smith, UC-Davis
The present proposal continues a study of the speech of gay men in urban
Japan. Data drawn from the speech of six gay and/or transvestite men are
analyzed for 1) pronoun use, 2) sentence final particles, 3) postposing,
4) intonation, and 5) rhetorical self-affirmation particle n 'um'. We
demonstrate that the speech patterns of the gay male community in Japan,
as the speech patterns of the better-studied heterosexual female- and
male-sex classes, are complex, but begin to establish a framework within
which the range of gay male speech patterns may be subsumed and to align
this range with those of the more established sex classes.
Women managers and "local" metapragmatic
knowledge in a Tokyo ccorporate office
Miyako Inoue, Washington University
The metapragmatic discourses of two women managers in a Tokyo corporate
office are examined. The purpose is to question the prevailing image of
Japanese "women's language" as an obligatory and unitary form
correlated with a "female role" inescapable whenever a woman
speaks. The metapragmatic discourses examined here reflect not the micro-situation
of a woman communicating interpersonally, but rather the macro-structural
factors of company organization, and variable life chances associated
with class and gender positioning in an evolving Japanese economy. The
paper also shows how creative and reflexive agency is reflected in the
metapragmatics of these two women.
The affecting work of eyes: patterns of eye gaze
in American Sign Language storytelling
Peggy Swartzel Lott, UT-Austin
In this paper I examine a few signed stories in order to track the shifting
gaze of signers in relation to the overall rhetorical and aesthetic structures
of their narratives. Videotaped excerpts illustrate particular patterns
of eye movement as well as the affective intensity of a relentless gaze
that insistently draws viewers' attention to particular points. The analysis
is then used to speculate about the dynamics of viewer response to the
compelling intersection of an outward engagement between eyes with an
inwardly probing question strategically positioned at key points in ASL
Authorial context and reported speech in Sierra
Popoluca discourse performance
Kay Sammons, UT-Austin
With respect to a correlation between narrative construction and audience
reception of messages disseminated through discourse performance identified
by Russian scholar V.N. Voloshinov, traditional Sierra Popoluca narrative
performances are shown to utilize an especially linear style in reporting
speech that encourages dogmatic acceptance on the part of the audience,
while other genres, such as recent historical narrative and conversational
speech, demonstrate a much wider range of rhetorical construction that
can vary from extremely linear to more subjective, pictorial styles. This
variation with regard to generic constraints encourages dogmatic reception
of traditional narrative performance while providing an important rhetorical
tool that can be manipulated to influence audience reception of messages
contained in performance of other genres.
The poetics & rhetoric of overlap in a sample
of Yup'ik men's house speech
Anthony C. Woodbury, UT-Austin
In a 3-hour recording of elderly Yup'ik men conversing in a traditional
men's house, conversational overlap is an extant but constrained phenomenon
with specific rules of use, contrary to earlier work on both English and
various arctic and subarctic Native American languages. It has these characteristics:
(A) It occurs mainly among social equals; (B) It occurs in conversation
and narrative; (C) It is restricted to utterances of agreement, including
agreement expletives, repetition, ratifying completion of the other's
utterance, and independent amplification; (D) It occurs within a potentially
utterance- final word; (E) The first speaker ordinarily completes his
utterances despite the second speaker's appearance; thereafter he is free
to resume the floor. Otherwise, pauses between and within turns are relatively
Rhetorical organization of Chichewa discourse
Troi Carleton, UT-Austin
In analyzing oral text, "there are at least five potentially independent
types of recurrent, hierarchic organization on which poetic representation
has been based: pause phrasing, prosodic phrasing, syntactic constituency,
global form-content parallelism, and adverbial-particle phrasing."
(Woodbury, 1985:176). These components are autonomous to the extent that
they interact but are neither dependent upon nor necessarily perfectly
aligned with one another. This paper shows how several of these independent
components manifest themselves in traditional Chichewa (Bantu: Malawi)
narratives. In particular, it discusses the relationship between intonational
form and its corresponding function as it interacts with the textual content
of the narrative, showing how these two independent systems of organization
align to convey meaning.
"Leaders," "farmers" and
"ordinary Americans": A critical discourse analysis of Democratic
and Republican speeches to the American public
Keller S. Mageneau and Gabriella Modan, Georgetown University
In this work we show how opposing parties strategically use language to
shape public ideology, and we explore the intertexutality of public discourse,
linking the speeches to mass-media accounts of election results. In post
mid-term election speeches by President Clinton and Republican Governor
Mike Levitt, each speaker uses person deixis, jargon, and syntactic roles
to construct alignments with governmental bodies or `ordinary Americans'.
Media coverage portrayed the elections as a massive blow for Clinton and
huge victory for Republicans. Viewed within this context, Clinton's speech
is process oriented (Fairclough 1989); using the aforementioned strategies,
he focuses on social/ideological change by giving ordinary Americans an
active position, as enthusiastic members of the Clinton team, in shaping
the nation. Levitt's discourse is structure oriented, focused on naturalizing
ideological assumptions; he highlights Republican leadership, in line
with the media's vision of Republicans as the solution to problems.
Poetic intonation in English
G. Burns Cooper, University of Alaska-Fairbanks
Recordings of poetry readings have characteristics of both written and
spoken language. Their intonation patterns are not explained well by current
theories of intonational meaning, which were developed for more interactive
discourse situations. Instead, the intonational contours are largely motivated
by other performance objectives: creating the proper "poetic"
atmosphere, highlighting parallelism, increasing the cohesion or rhythmicity
of key passages, emphasizing particular words and phrases, emphasizing
dialect differences, and perhaps others. Salience and (in)completion play
their expected roles, but other suggested discourse influences do not
appear well-motivated for these texts.
The poetics of Kuna radio broadcasts
Marta Lucia de Gerdes, UT-Austin
This paper gives an ethnographic context of radio broadcasts by the Kuna
of Panama, and analyzes the use of language in these speech events. The
emphasis is on the poetics of the grammar, in particular the organization
and interaction of prosodic elements and the way in which such organization
is meaningful in the structure of Kuna discourse. I conclude that Kuna
radio broadcasts are more than a cut-and-paste of Kuna speech onto a "universal"
standard format for radio news. They evidence verbal artistic features
and dialogic patterning characteristic of well studied face to face Kuna
Laissez le francais cadjin rouler
Sylvie DuBois, William Gautreaux, and Tracey Veler, Louisiana State
No abstract available
The use of prepositions, articles and simplification
in contact varieties of German
Claudia Kurz, Ohio State University
This study investigates the use of prepositions and definite articles
in two contact varieties of German, one spoken by three foreign workers
living in Berlin, the other by three Bosnian refugees in Munich. From
a total of 150 utterances per speaker, the forms investigated are tabulated
to show matches and mismatches with the norms of native German. The extent
of restrictive simplification is higher in Foreign Workers' German than
in the refugee speech. Since the first language is Serbo-Croatian for
all speakers, interference is ruled out to account for the difference.
Restrictive simplification, however, is inversely related to the degree
of speaker motivation. The group with a lower degree of restrictive simplification
in their grammars, Bosnian refugees, confesses a high motivation for integration
into the German host community. The higher degree of simplification in
the codes of the foreign workers reflects their low motivation for such
"Espero que me disculpen": ethnic and
gender norms in language choice
Jonathan Loftin, UT-Austin
This paper examines language choice conflicts at a political-cultural
festival in rural highland Ecuador. Bilingualism in Spanish and Quichua
is the norm in this community. Quichua is an important symbol of indigenous
ethnic identity, and is also linked to women's roles. In this case one
participant preferred Spanish; her choice was evaluated as conflicting
with gender and ethnic roles. Cast by organizers in terms of making communication
easier for indigenous women, the choice of Quichua for the event in effect
limited their linguistic choices. It thus constrained the linguistic behavior
of those whose behavior it was designed to reflect.
Affiliation & codeswitching among Latina gang
Norma Mendoza-Denton, Stanford University
The objective of my study is to investigate the relationship among ethnic
identity, linguistic practice, and gang affiliation in a population of
Latina girls in a northern California high school. I will employ the methodology
of discourse analysis, coupled with ethnographic fieldwork, to test my
hypothesis that patterns of discourse variation (specifically, patterns
of codeswitching (CS) and especially differences in the matrix language)
in this community are the product of three factors: (1) language dominance
in Spanish or English, (2) Chicana or Mexicana ethnic identity, and (3)
You can say you to me: German translations of second
person pronouns in American films
Robin Queen, UT-Austin
This study examines the use of the formal/informal distinction in second
person pronouns in German. Using descriptive data on the translation of
American films into German, this paper demonstrates many of the ways in
which prescriptive rules for the implementation of du and Sie may be in
conflict with norms of usage. Based on the model first outlined by Brown
and Gilman (1960), I thus show how formulaic guidelines for the dubbing
of American films and television programs into German fail to reflect
the complex interplay between language and social life found otherwise
in the community.
When a homeless woman makes a burglary report:
Ideologies of public and private language in sociolinguistics
Bonnie McElhinny, Washington University
In this paper I critically analyze the distinction between institutional
and ordinary language often invoked in the tradition of conversational
analysis. The empirical focus of this paper is a close analysis of an
interaction between an African-American police officer and an African-American
homeless woman who wants to make a burglary report. I analyze this interaction
by using the Bakhtinian notion of heteroglossia as well as Black feminist
social theory to understand the particular ways in which "ordinary/familiar"
and "institutional/formal" spheres interpenetrate one another
in the police officer's attempt to shape the outcome of this interaction,
as well as to understand the ways in which the complainant's own interpretive
efforts resist this shaping.
The validity and reliability of phonetic transcriptions
for sociolinguistics and dialectology
Lisa Ann Lane, Jeannette Denton, and Daniel Susslak, University of
Are phonetic transcriptions a product of what the transcriber believes
a sound should be or a product of what is actually produced? Since much
of sociolinguistics and dialectology utilize transcriptions as the basis
for derving data, it is crucial that we explore and understand the limitations
of this tool. The validity and reliability of phonetic transcriptions
(of 2 speech styles) by three linguists is being studied. An unfamiliar
language was chosen to control for native speaker filtering and to control
for the transcribers being phonologically influenced. This paper reports
on the findings of inter- and intratranscriber reliability and validity
comparisons with native speaker produced transcriptions.
Sound symbolism as an explanation for sex-based
variation in language
Matthew Gordon, University of Michigan
Many explanations have been offered to account for the widespread phenomenon
of sexual differentiation in language. Sociolinguists have been especially
concerned with this issue but have had limited success finding comprehensive
solutions. This paper suggests that one reason for the sociolinguists'
difficulty in explaining sex differentiation lies in their fundamental
belief in the arbitrariness of the linguistic sign. Suspending that belief
opens new avenues of explanation. Using evidence from diverse languages,
I suggest that a non-arbitrary relationship exists between the social
category "female" and certain sounds, namely palatal consonants
and fronted and/or raised vowels. This hypothesis is discussed in the
broader context of sound symbolism with a focus on its diachronic implications.
An emerging alternative to Spanish vowel linking
Felice Coles, University of Mississippi
Spanish sinalefa is a standard phonetic process in which adjacent vowels
across syllables are pronounced as one long vowel in casual speech (Barrutia
& Schwegler 1994): [es.ta:ki] 'he/she/it is here.' An alternative
to sinalefa can be heard in recent Spanish soap operas, in which an [h]
marks the separation of the two vowels: [mi.√i.∂a.ha.si]
'my life thus far.' This epenthetic aspiration appears when two identical
vowels come into contact at word boundaries, when speaking Caribbean Spanish
where [s] aspiration and deletion is already a dialect feature, and in
longer narratives. This feature has been judged in a preliminary survey
as a stylistic variant, used for emphasis or emoting in performances.
Reduplication in four languages: where formal
grammar and speech play/verbal art meet
Joel Sherzer, UT-Austin
Reduplication is often cited as a grammatical/semantic process which is
iconic, that is one which directly and obviously connects sound and meaning.
There is considerable cross-linguistic consistency in the meaning and
function of reduplication. Different patterns in the semantic and socio-cultural
functioning of reduplication are illustrated with examples from Classical
Nahuatl, Kuna, Balinese, and English. Reduplication can be seen as an
important aspect of all languages when language is viewed in socio-cultural
context and when the playful and esthetic functions of language are considered
to be as important as the expression of reference.
Standard and vernacular persuasive discourse in
John Taggart Clark, Georgetown University
This critical discourse analysis investigates linguistic accommodation
and resistance (Giroux 1983) to Standard English in an urban American
high school. Unlike most Standard English / Vernacular English studies,
which focus on quantitative-based studies of variation of sentence-level
syntactic features, this study looks at standard/vernacular language continuum
as it pertains to persuasive (rhetorical) discourse. The data is taken
from a high school class in which a law school student, in teaching a
course about law, attempts to apprentice his students into using prestigious
"standard" persuasive discourse registers.
Writing Mazateco: linguistic standardization and
Michael R. Duke, UT-Austin
This paper will explore the multifaceted challenges faced by indigenous
linguists in creating a practical writing system for highland Mazateco,
a Popolucan language spoken by approximately 77,000 speakers in southern
Mexico. While indigenous intellectuals view the creation of a standardized
writing system as the first step in promoting literacy in the Mazateco
language, local debates about language and literacy are in fact strongly
informed by the historically contentious social and political relations
that exist both within and between Mazateco communities. Through ethnographic
and linguistic examples, the paper will show the complex relationship
between language and politics in the Sierra Mazateca.
"That terrible Saxon dialect": standard
language ideology in post-unification Germany
Jennifer Dailey-O'Cain, University of Michigan
No abstract available
of African-American Language in introductory linguistics texts
Keith Walters, UT-Austin
No abstract available
Indexical Order and the dialectics of sociolinguistic
Michael Silverstein, University of Chicago
No abstract available
Jacob Mey, Odense University
No abstract available