TABLE OF CONTENTS
Conflict Talk: the Reconstruction of
Experience through Narrative among Portuguese Boys.
The Markedness Model and Style Switching:
Evidence from African American Drag Queens.
Frame Analysis and the Urban-Rural
Rift in Javanese Society.
The Gendering of Nukulaelae Literacy
"C'est bon, ca!": Conventional
Displays of Affect in French.
A Matter of Face: Some Aspects of
Orientation in Time and Space in Chinese.
Telling Stories/Revealing Selves:
Narratives in the Composition Classroom.
The Negotiation of Language Accommodation
among Teens in Barcelona.
Competing Discourses in Student
Accounts: Micro-level Reflections of Macro-level Societal Tensions.
The Redneck Women's 'Reverse': Language
and Gender in American Working-Class Verbal Art.
Texas Afro-Seminole: Old Creole or New?
Compliments, Compliment Responses,
and Politeness in an African American Community.
Putting Identity Theory to Work: Operationalizing Le Page's
The Negotiation of Context in the
Sociolinguistic Interview: Intonational Variation in Israeli Hebrew.
"Social" Deixis and Social
Change in North Wales.
Iconic Contrasts in Hebrew-English
"Oyes, Tu!": Linguistic Stereotyping
as Stance and Alliance.
Indigenous Story Genres
in the Western Highlands of Papua New Guinea.
"What does a speaker want?":
Explanations for Linguistic Choices in Interpersonal Interactions.
Parallelism and Pairing in the New Guinea
Ambiguity in Reported Speech in Japanese
Your Friend is Pissing Standing Up:
Kuna Positional Suffixes in Grammatical Discourse, Poetic, and Socio-Cultural
Sociolinguistic Behavior of Udas Newars
in Kathmandu City.
Your Boss is Your "Mother":
Japanese Women's Construction of an Authoritative Position in the Workplace.
Gender, Adolescent Peer Groups,
and the Bilingual Repertoire in Barcelona.
does a speaker want?": Explanations for Linguistic Choices in Interpersonal
Carol Myers-Scotton, University of South Carolina
No abstract available
Negotiation of Language Accommodation among Teens in Barcelona
Hope N. Doyle, University of Colorado at Denver
will to accommodate socially on the part of Barcelona youths is perhaps
most fully expressed in their will to accommodate linguistically. The
analysis of speech accommodation in this study relies in part on second
language acquisition motivation research and is largely qualitative,
though frequencies of responses are discussed. Perhaps the most overt
of all speech accommodation, code switching, is interlocutor dependent
in Catalonia, and so questions of identity and ethnicity move to the
fore. The findings indicate that Catalan is seen as an additive ethnic
feature for the majority of subjects, while Castilian is at times perceived
as subtracted inasmuch as it suppresses Catalan language and the identity
Contrasts in Hebrew-English Bilingual Conversation
Yael Maschler, Hebrew University of Jerusalem & Halfa University
on analysis of over 20 hours of audiotaped Hebrew-English bilingual
conversation, this study concerns two types of discourse contrast in
codeswitching situations. The study illustrates the abundance and variety
of Hebrew contrastive discourse markers compared with the English ones
in the data, thus providing further grammatical evidence supporting
previous studies which argue for relatively high tolerance for disagreement
in Israeli discourse (Katriel 1986, Maschler in press). The study also
concludes that the expression of semantic contrast via language alteration
generally overrides the motivation to separate the discourse from its
Markedness Model and Style Switching: Evidence from African American
Rusty Barrett, UT Austin
paper explores the possibility of using Myers-Scotton's (1988, 1993)
Markedness Model for bi/multilingual code switching to study monolingual
style switching. Evidence supporting the applicability of the Markedness
Model is provided from a study of style switching in the speech of African
American drag queens (African American gay men who cross dress in public).
Compliment Responses, and Politeness in an African American Community
Anita Henderson, University of Kansas
on fieldwork carried out in East St. Louis, Illinois, with African-American
speakers, this study is an analysis of compliment behavior in a politeness
framework. Following Brown and Levinson (1987), this analysis illuminates
how concepts of politeness determine culturally appropriate compliment
behavior by (1) assessing appropriate expression of face wants via cultural
beliefs, (2) establishing expectations of responses via adjacency pairs,
and (3) rank-ordering responses via preference organization. This study
provides both a pragmatic analysis of compliments and compliment responses
in African-American English and a model of complimenting behavior based
on politeness theory.
Analysis and the Urban-Rural Rift in Javanese Society
Laine Berman, Georgetown University
study explores the effects of modernization in the developing world
and the ways in which it is altering local identities in Java. These
recorded conversational data illustrate the miscommunication that is
growing in dissonance and frequency as it offers an intimate glimpse
of diverse stances and world views that currently collide within a community
previously acclaimed for its elegance and harmony. I analyze talk between
two people from the same rural village but whose unequal access to modernizing
influences has divided them. I locate the discursive features of this
disagreement to see how they may represent a new concept of modern Javanese
Talk: the Reconstruction of Experience through Narrative among Portuguese
Julio Alves, Smith College
working-class Portuguese boys regularly narrate their street conflicts
in the peer group. In doing so, they collectively decipher the lines
of conflict and power in their community. These narratives are more
than simple retellings, however. They transform the events to suit the
collective interests of the working-class. They are yet another example
of the way social relationships are collectively constructed through
talk. This paper is a textual analysis of the language and discourse
structure of five personal experience narratives about street conflicts
between working-class and non-working class (middle-class, Gypsy) boys.
Story Genres in the Western Highlands of Papua New Guinea
Francesca Merlan, Sydney University and Indiana Universit
paper discusses indigenously recognized story types in the Nebilyer
Valley, Western Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea, focusing on kange
and temani. Though there has been recent suggestion for a neighboring
area of the Southern Highlands (LeRoy 1985) that a similar pair may
be understood to differ as 'literature' and 'history' (or fiction and
non-fiction), no such 'truth value' criterion adequately captures the
Nebilyer distinction as locally understood. The paper concentrates on
discussion of the texutal strategies which distinguish kange and temani,
especially differences in the resources of framing, realization of character,
and socio-spatial employment.
Friend is Pissing Standing Up: Kuna Positional Suffixes in Grammatical
Discourse, Poetic, and Socio-Cultural Context
Joel Sherzer, UT Austin
the Kuna language, four verbal suffixes indicate the position of the
subject of an utterance, in conjunction with expressing ongoing activity.
They signify 'horizontal,' 'vertical,' 'sitting,' and 'perched.' In
addition to their grammatical and semantic function, these suffixes
have an important function in verbal art and play, as well as in metaphorical
and symbolic expression, in both everyday and formal/ritual discourse.
The study of these suffixes reveals the poetic imagination at the heart
of the Kuna language-culture relationship.
and Pairing in the New Guinea Highlands
Alan Rumsey, Sydney University and Indiana University
Jakobson's seminal work on parallelism stresses its universality, recent
studies of verbal art have revealed interesting cross-cultural differences
regarding its canonical forms and uses. This paper concerns its specific
forms and uses in Ku Waru- a Papuan language of Highland New Guinea--which
I relate to other aspects of Ku Waru language and culture, especially
the local emphasis on pairing as the fundamental form of social organization
and action. From a Ku Waru perspective there is no reason to separate
parallelism as a specifically linguistic phenomenon from the wider social
field in which pairing is practiced.
Afro-Seminole: Old Creole or New?
Ian Hancock, UT Austin
in Reported Speech in Japanese Narrative Discourse
Akira Satch, Georgetown University
speech in Japanese has attracted the attention of scholars because the
distinction between direct and indirect speech is said to be blurred.
In this paper I describe two types of reported speech which cannot be
identified as simply direct or indirect speech in Japanese. Then I argue
one type of the "obscure" speech functions as a skillful involvement
strategy in Japanese spoken narrative.
bon, ca!": Conventional Displays of Affect in French
Carl Blyth, UT Austin
the conventionalized display of emotion or emotional intensity, plays
an important role in conversation. In order to interpret a speaker's
utterance, interlocutors need to know the affective orientation of the
speaker. In fact, interlocutors often respond to the speaker's affect
rather than to the prepositional content of the utterance. Affect displays
are particularly important to the organization of assessments, the evaluation
or judgment of entities and events. It is shown that assessments in
informal French conversation are characterized by particular patterns
of interaction and by particular linguistic structures. Data informing
this study come from two corpora of spontaneous conversational discourse
including Canadian and European varieties of French.
Matter of Face: Some Aspects of Orientation in Time and Space in Chinese
Lilly Lee Chen, Rice University
notion of face in Chinese is important in both social interaction and
the orientation of time and space. The bi-directional concept of Time
as expressed by front-back, and go-come for both past and future are
explainable in terms of face as contained in the metaphors of queue
and walking. Queue expresses the prior-subsequent contrast and has the
basic meaning of priority (predecessor, and thus past). Walking is for
facing the future. Left-right and front-back spatial orientation is
based on the (construed) face (e.g.- the front door) of the referent
(e.g.- a house).
Stories/Revealing Selves: Narratives in the Composition Classroom
Suzanne Cherry, Texas A & M
use narratives for content-related functions (Strodt-Lopez 1987, 1993),
such as examples, explanations, expansion of ideas, and transitions
between tasks. Teachers also use narratives for social and rhetorical
functions: to interest their audience; to entertain their audience;
to fill in 'dead air' space while students work at the blackboard; to
be humorous; to identify with their audience; and to build their authority,
to counteract or undermine their authority role. In short, narratives
are rhetorical strategies for creating and establishing the teacher's
persona. Teacher and student perspectives of these narratives, however,
do not always agree, perhaps because of the social context of the classroom
and perhaps because of the teacher's persona.
Tu!": Linguistic Stereotyping as Stance and Alliance
Norma Mendonza-Denton, Stanford University
study will examine the reproduction of ethnic/linguistic stereotypes
in the discourse of Latinos in a high school in Northern California,
highlighting the strategic use of these stereotypes in signaling stance
and alliance between young people. Within an ethnographic discussion
of the multilayered Latino groups in the school, we will analyze one
particular interaction to 1) examine the linguistic features involved,
and how those are used strategically by the speakers, and 2) track the
transmission and acquisition of the stereotype.
Discourses in Student Accounts: Micro-level Reflections of Macro-level
Rebecca D. Freeman, University of Pennsylvania
of stories that people tell (Mitchell, 1981) and metaphors that they
use (Reddy, 1979; Lakoff, 1980) provides a means of understanding how
individuals make sense of and structure their experiences. This paper
provides an intertextual analysis (Bakhtin, 1986; Fairclough, 1989;
Lemke, 1989) of language minority students' stories, which illustrates
the individual students' attempts to reconcile conflicting messages
they receive about the kind of person they should be, and reflect macro-level
US societal tensions between assimilation on the one hand and cultural
pluralism on the other.
Boss is Your "Mother": Japanese Women's Construction of an Authoritative
Position in the Workplace
Yukako Sunaoshi, UT Austin
work analyzes how two Japanese female managers manipulate language when
giving directives to their subordinates. First, directives used by the
two women are analyzed and compared with one of Smith's strategies (1992),
the Motherese Strategy, and directives used by Japanese mothers to children
in actual conversations. Second, other evidence in discourse that appears
to help the women create their mother-like position is analyzed. The
results suggest that the women's choice of directive forms and theirinte
ractions with the subordinates are helping them construct a mother-like
and ultimately an authoritative position. The two women are maximizing
their power by exploiting the linguistic resources available to them,
rather than "talking like men."
Gendering of Nukulaelae Literacy Practices
Niko Besnier, Yale University
both women and men on Nukulaelae Atoll (Polynesia) partake in a similar
range of literacy practices, gender plays an important role in defining
literacy in this community. The link between gender and literacy resides
in such factors as the relative salience of particular gendered emotions
and the claim to authority inherent in specific literacy practices.
The gendering of literacy in this community (and, I propose, in other
societies) is thus intrinsically dependent on the particular social
practice in which literacy is produced and used. It is also semiotically
complex and indexical, which allows for leakage and multiple interpretations.
Redneck Women's 'Reverse': Language and Gender in American Working-Class
Aaron Fox, UT Austin
paper investigates the construction of models of gender identity in
rural white working-class ("redneck") verbal art. I analyze redneck
women's "reverses"-- i.e., framed performances in which women enact
"male" roles and men perform female roles--and examine as well how certain
performers create ambiguous genders for their characters. I show how
redneck women particularly stereotype male discourse topics, prosodic
structures, and paralinguistic gestures. These performances simultaneously
critically denaturalize "ordinary" hegemonic relations encoded in gendered
speech styles and performatively and affirmatively "renaturalize" the
same gendered division of discourse as a positive assertion of redneck
Adolescent Peer Groups, and the Bilingual Repertoire in Barcelona
Kathyrn Woolard, UC San Diego
Identity Theory to Work: Operationalizing Le Page's Model
Chris Hormann, UT Austin
offering us an elegant heuristic for thinking about issues of language
and identity, Le Page's hypothesis and its riders (Le Page and Tabouret-Keller,
1985) are extremely difficult to operationalize and thus very few researchers
have made an attempt to utilize identity theory for practical research
purposes. I examine the problems inherent in operationalizing the theory
and present parts of my own questionnaire, designed to elicit data on
the subjects' linguistic behavior and on variables like identification
with the target group, feedback, access, subject, motivation, language
analysis and modification abilities, proposing an effective instrument
to measure identity theory's parameters.
Negotiation of Context in the Sociolinguistic Interview: Intonational
Variation in Israeli Hebrew
Daniel Lefkowitz, UT Austin
Deixis and Social Change in North Wales
H. Paul Manning, University of Chicago
Behavior of Udas Newars in Kathmandu City
Uma Shrestha, Western Oregon State University
Keith Walters, UT Austin